Scientists, technologists and environmentalists
contribute their inputs to the proposals for socio-economic reforms
drafted by the NDFP and GPH reciprocal working committees respectively
UP Balay Kalinaw
May 20, 2011
This June the GPH and NDFP negotiating panels will meet again and on the agenda are proposals from both panels for socio-economic reforms that will address the roots of the conflict.
"As citizens concerned with the
destruction of our environment and the backward state of science and
technology in the Philippines, we invite you to and contribute to the
environmental and science & technology agenda at stake in the ongoing
peace process, with representatives from the GPH and the NDF's Reciprocal
Working Committee on Socio- Economic Reforms (RWC-SERs) and colleagues
from the environment and science and technology sectors."
|NDFP Represenative Rafael Baylosis (left) and GPH Representative Edmar Dayanghirang (right)|
|Photos courtesy of AGHAM and Arkibong Bayan as indicated by the filenames|
The Center for Environmental
|NDFP's Rafael Baylosis discusses NDFP's proposal on socio-economic reforms|
|GPH's Edmar Dayanghirang discusses GPH's proposal on socio-economic reforms|
Geologist Ricardo Saturay and CEC's Lisa Ito-Tapang - Program moderators
Provisions in the NDFP CASER draft1 with direct reference
to the environment and science & technology sectors
Comprehensive Agreement on Social and Economic Reforms (CASER)
Between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP)
and the National Democratic Front of the Philippines (NDFP)
NDFP Draft - February 26, 1998
I. Outline of the NDFP Draft
II. Declaration of Principles
III. Bases, Scope, and Applicability
IV. Economic Sovereignty and National Patrimony
V. Agrarian Reform and Agricultural Development
VI. National Industrialization and Economic Development
VII. Economic Planning
VIII. Rights of the Working People, Livelihood, and Social Services
IX. Environmental Protection, Rehabilitation, and Compensation
X. Monetary and Fiscal Policies
XI. Foreign Economic and Trade Relations
XII. Final Provisions
II. Provisions in direct reference to the environment and natural resources
Part I. PREAMBLE
4. Realizing that the Philippines with its competent labor force, technologically adept managerial and
entrepreneurial forces and a comprehensive natural resource base, will make itself economically self-
The following provisions remain unresolved:
3.Upholding national economic sovereignty and a self-reliant and independent economy and aiming to
protect, conserve and, as far as practicable, recover the national patrimony, protect the environment,
carry out agrarian reform and national industrialization and thus bring about comprehensive and
sustainable social and economic development;
Note difference between GRP and NDFP on phrase “national industrialization”; NDFP maintains
“national”; GRP wants to omit “national.”
Declaration of Principles2
Article 4. The Parties shall resolve to review and, as necessary, reverse all economic policies,
programs, laws, agreements and treaties that have negated the objective of social and economic
development and adversely affected the lives of the Filipino people.
Article 6. The Parties uphold the welfare of the people, especially the workers, peasants and
indigenous people’s and ethnic minorities and other basic sectors as the primary consideration in the
sustainable utilization of national patrimony to bring about social and economic development.
Note: GRP-NDFP: Same reservations in preamble apply regarding standing issue on indigenous
1 NB 2004 revisions replace relevant sections in 1998 draft
2 April 2, 2004
people’s and ethnic minorities.
Article 10. The Parties agree to conduct economic reconstruction and development along the principle
of securing the people’s welfare, maintaining ecological balance, assuring continuous regeneration of
renewable natural resources and judiciously using nonrenewable resources.
Economic Sovereignty and National Patrimony 3
Our country and its people have suffered foreign economic exploitation for more than four centuries, first
under Spanish colonial masters, then US colonial and imperialist masters and now by foreign
multinational corporations and multilateral agencies of the dominant capitalist powers, particularly the
United States, Japan and the European Union. Every year, foreign monopoly firms and banks draw from
our shores huge amounts of capital in the form of repatriated profits, dividends, royalties and capital.
Together with the mounting import bill, amortization of loans and interest payments to foreign entities,
these huge amounts of capital outflow have resulted in chronic balance of payments deficits.
The lack of economic opportunity and the depressed economic conditions in our country compel our
workers and professionals to seek jobs and a better life in the increasingly exploitative, oppressive and
inhospitable working and living conditions of other countries, thereby draining our human resources.
The Philippine environment has been wantonly violated and degraded. This disaster impelled by the
exploiters’ greed for profit has caused displacement of hundreds of thousands of our people from their
habitation, among them the national and ethnic minorities from their ancestral lands. The rapacious
activities of foreign corporations and their local partners take no heed of the well-being of our people and
Under these circumstances, the Parties recognize that the will and unity of the Filipino people must be
forged to promote and achieve economic sovereignty and secure our national patrimony. To this end,
the Parties, jointly and separately, assume the duties and responsibilities in effecting the Articles
Article 1. The Parties recognize the need for the Filipino people to liberate the economy from foreign
dominance and pursue a program of national economic development that harnesses both the public and
Article 2. All resources of the public domain, including land, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum and other
mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries, forests, wildlife, flora and fauna and other natural
resources shall not be alienated. In this regard, the legitimate rights of settlers and national and ethnic
minorities shall be fully respected.
Article 3. All mining operations shall be regulated with the objective of ensuring the domestic processing
of mineral resources up to the secondary and tertiary stages of industrial production while at the same
time guaranteeing environmental protection, social compensation for disturbance and damage caused
as well as democratic consultation with, and the consent of, the people in the communities immediately
and directly affected by such operations.
Article 4. Logging for export shall be prohibited until sufficient forest cover for the country has been
regenerated. Logging for domestic use shall be regulated. All logging shall be reserved exclusively for
Filipino citizens. A program of forestry management and rehabilitation, including massive reforestation
and afforestation campaigns, assured of adequate budgetary appropriations, shall be carried out.
Article 5. The nation’s marine wealth in its archipelagic waters, territorial seas and exclusive economic
zone shall be protected and its use shall be reserved exclusively for Filipino citizens. Cooperative fish
farming, subsistence fishermen and fishworkers in rivers, lakes, bays and lagoons shall be assured of
preferential rights thereto.
Article 6. Measures to decisively transfer and promote technology to Filipino enterprises from foreign
3 July 29, 2004
entities supplying machinery, equipment and technical processes shall be undertaken.
Article 7. A policy to develop our human resources and generate employment for all Filipino citizens
shall be adopted. The policy shall be to promote the productivity and skills of working people through
scientific and technological research, development and education.
Article 8. Filipino scientists, technologists and workers shall have first priority of employment in all
enterprises. However, where no Filipino experts are qualified, foreign experts may be hired on contract
for no more than five years within which steps shall be undertaken to ensure substantial and effective
transfer of knowledge and skills to Filipinos.
Article 9. Research on the cultural heritage of the Filipino people shall be promoted and the spirit of
patriotism promoted. The outstanding cultural legacies of our people, including the signal achievement of
being the first to wage a revolution against Western colonialism and aspire to establish a democratic
republic in Asia, shall be promoted through research, the arts and other cultural activities.
Article 10. Appropriation by private and foreign agencies through intellectual property conventions such
as patenting of the genetic properties and technological processing of commonly available and wild
varieties of flora and fauna shall be prohibited. Where allowed, patenting of flora and fauna on Philippine
territory shall be the exclusive privilege of Filipino citizens.
Article 11. All existing laws, treaties and other issuances adverse to the preservation and protection of
our national patrimony such as, but not limited to, the Mining Act of 1995, the Foreign Investments Act of
1991, the Land Lease Law of 1995, the RP-Japan Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation of 1975
and the Privatization Act of 1989 shall be reviewed and as necessary immediately repealed, abrogated
Part II. BASES, SCOPE AND APPLICABILITY
Article 2. The main objectives of this Agreement are: a) to uphold, protect, defend and promote
economic sovereignty, b) to conserve the national patrimony and protect the environment, c) to carry out
agrarian reform and national industrialization, and d) to advance the rights of the working people,
women, national and ethnic minorities and other exploited, oppressed, discriminated and disadvantaged
sectors of society.
Article 4. The Parties are guided by such universally accepted principles and instruments of
international law as the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966, the
International Labor Convention of 1948 on Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to
Organize and other similar or relevant international covenants.
Part IV. AGRARIAN REFORM AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT4
Article 25. The right of national and ethnic minorities to their ancestral domain shall be recognized and
their communal property rights shall be guaranteed under this Agreement. The demarcation of their
ancestral and communal lands shall be determined through democratic consultation with them and their
associations and other affected sectors and communities.
Article 28. Land-use conversion of prime agricultural land devoted to food production shall be
prohibited. Economic or agrarian schemes or policies of the GRP legitimizing the conversion of prime
agricultural lands into so-called industrial estates, urban-housing estates and subdivisions, golf courses
or for the cultivation of export luxury crops shall be immediately terminated and reversed.
Article 32. Conversion of prime agricultural land devoted to food production shall be prohibited. Policies
or programs facilitating the conversion of prime agricultural lands into so-called industrial estates, urban-
housing estates and subdivisions, tourist resorts, golf courses or for the cultivation of export crops shall
be suspended, reviewed and as necessary reversed.
Part V. NATIONAL INDUSTRIALIZATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
4 NDFP Draft - July 29, 2004
conomic development can avail of the comprehensively rich natural resource base, the skilled forces of
production, including the workers, peasants, pool of scientists and technologists and the rest of the
Filipino people, who at the same time are the primary consumers. Likewise, the development of industry,
science and technology can reverse the drain of highly competent and skilled human resources for
whose development huge investments have been expended from the social product.
Article 22. The development of industry shall be programmed in accordance with the availability of
resources and with due consideration of the capability and wellbeing of the people, especially the worker
and peasant masses.
Article 23. The Parties agree to develop heavy industry as the leading factor in a comprehensive and
well-balanced development of the economy and shall be guided by the following:
d. Ecological considerations in industrial development shall be given due emphasis and
attention in order to counter or eliminate the destructive effect on the people’s health and the
environment of certain heavy industrial processes. Measures to ensure the protection and
efficient utilization of the country’s renewable and non-renewable resource base shall be
Part VI. ECONOMIC PLANNING
Article 2. The Parties recognize that the unfettered operation of the “free market” will work against any
national economic plan having the welfare of the majority of Filipinos as its primary concern and agree to
pursue overall economic and social goals effectively through economic planning that takes systematic
account of the availability of labor power and required skills, land and capital; technology; gestation
periods; scale economies; forward and backward linkages; environmental implications and competing
claims on investible resources at an economy-wide level.
Article 3. The Parties shall tap and direct the country’s human and natural resource potential to benefit
the majority of the people, as opposed to allowing its appropriation by parasitic foreign and local
exploiting classes, and shall ensure that domestic patterns of production and consumption are
determined according to domestic needs and capacity.
Article 7. In line with the objectives of general economic planning, the Parties agree to adopt a national
land use policy to determine and develop the sections of land suitable for agricultural, industrial,
reservation, recreational and other uses as well as to prevent the alienation of lands, marshes, rivers,
and the like in order to ensure sustained and self-reliant development as well as ecological balance.
Article 11. The Parties agree to adopt a comprehensive and balanced national policy for the country’s
natural resources and their all-round exploration, conservation, and development to redress the pattern
of neocolonial exchange of raw materials and manufactures that has resulted in the reckless depletion
and intensified extraction of the country’s natural resources. They shall institute measures to ensure a
healthy natural environment, giving due regard to the protection and efficient utilization of the country’s
renewable and non-renewable resource base.
Article l. The Parties shall undertake rational planning and zoning for urban and rural areas, coupled
with proper environmental planning for the construction of roads, public transport facilities and buildings
to alleviate congestion and pollution in every area and region.
Part VIII. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, REHABILITATION AND COMPENSATION
The profit-driven nature of capitalist production, with the particular neocolonial pattern of production and
trade, that overrides social and ecological considerations has been the main factor in the devastation of
the Philippine environment and the consequent disasters that have plagued the country. The strategy of
export-led economic growth has opened the country’s natural resources to control and plunder by the
foreign monopoly capitalists, big comprador bourgeoisie and bureaucrat capitalists.
As the imperialists and the local exploiting classes freely siphon off the nation’s natural wealth, they
leave behind a ravaged environment. Industrial wastes like mine tailings and carbon monoxide
emissions and unsafe agricultural products pollute and destroy the environment. The GRP Mining Act of
1995 means the wholesale delivery of the national patrimony to the unbridled exploitation by foreign
investors. It opens the door wider to the destruction of the environment and the displacement of the
national and ethnic minorities from their ancestral lands.
The Parties taking cognizance of the fact that the increasing degradation of the environment continues
to exacerbate the immiseration of a growing majority of the people, therefor assume separate and joint
duties and responsibilities in adopting measures to ensure the following:
Article 1. Environmental protection, conservation and wise use of natural resources shall be pursued for
the well-being of the Filipino people.
Article 2. Economic development shall be pursued with due regard for the protection and efficient use of
the country’s renewable and non-renewable resources. Ensuring ecological balance shall be an
important component of economic development planning. Ecologically sound farming and industrial
practices shall be promoted.
Article 3. Ecologically destructive practices such as open-pit mining, monocrop production for export,
the wanton clearing and leveling of land for golf courses, resorts and real estate development shall be
prohibited and penalties imposed on perpetrators for destruction caused.
Article 4. Only with sufficient provisions for environmental protection and recovery shall mining be
undertaken. The people in communities affected by mining operations shall be democratically consulted
and asked to participate in the determination of just and appropriate social compensation.
Article 5. The US military forces shall be prohibited from continued use of the Philippines as a military
exercise area and arsenal for armaments and munitions under the guise of transit, visit, acquisition of
supplies and forward deployment. The United States government shall be held accountable for the toxic
waste pollution of the land and environment in the former US military bases in the country.
Article 6. No country shall be allowed to use the Philippines as a storehouse for all kinds of war materiel
or armaments and munitions including nuclear, biological and chemical and other weapons of mass
Article 7. The dumping by advanced industrial capitalist countries of their toxic wastes such as
computer scraps, used batteries, PVC scraps and nuclear wastes in Philippine territory shall be stopped
and compensation shall be demanded for damage caused to the people and their environment.
Article 8. The entry of hazardous technologies and pollutant industries, which the industrial capitalist
countries are relocating from their homegrounds, and likewise the entry of hazardous agricultural
products shall be banned.
Article 9. Military actions that target civilian population and devastate the environment, such as
indiscriminate aerial bombardment and artillery fire, poisoning of water sources, use of biochemical
weapons, and burning of crops, shall be banned and the perpetrators made criminally liable. The party
responsible shall be made to pay compensation for injuries and loss of lives and for the destruction or
damage to property and assets. Victims or their surviving relatives shall receive full compensation.
Article 10. The GRP practice of setting up power generation and other infrastructure projects such as
hydroelectric dams and nuclear plants, without regard to environmental impact and which cause
displacement especially of peasants and national and ethnic minorities, shall be stopped.
Article 11. Rehabilitation and development of natural resources shall be carried out. Commercial
logging shall be prohibited until sufficient forest cover has been regenerated. Marine resources that have
been depleted, polluted or destroyed by multinational firms and foreign fishing vessels shall likewise be
regenerated and their continued exploitation banned.
Article 12. A program addressing the problem of pollution, waste control and disposal and lack of safe
water supply shall be developed.
Article 13. Education to promote environmental consciousness and ecologically sound practices shall
be undertaken among the people through their mass organizations, the mass media and the school........
|Geologist Rolando Peña|
|Green Convergence's Gwen Borcena|
|Antonio Flores, KMP National Council Member|
|Miriam College biology professor Mila Serrana|
|Shen Maglinte, Deputy Executive Director of SIBAT|
|Clemente Bautista. KALIKASAN national coordinator|
|Round Table Discussion of S&T and Envi groups|
|The Environment Round Table Discussion Group ▼|
|The S&T Round Table Discussion Group ▼|
|Frances Quimpo, Executive Director of Center for Environmental Concerns||Dr. Giovanni Tapang, Chair, AGHAM|
John Limwelle Lectura of PUP Physics Society sums up the results of the roundtable disccusion of the S&T group
Anthony Arbias, president of the Philippine Native Plants Conservation Society, sums up the results of the roundtable discussion of the Environmenta group